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Unit 1 Festivals around the world
FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS
Festivals and celebrations of all kinds have been held everywhere since ancient times. Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn. Sometimes celebrations would be held after hunters had caught animals. At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find, especially during the cold winter months. Today’s festivals have many origins, some religious, some seasonal, and some for special people or events. Festivals of the dead
Some festivals are held to honour the dead or to satisfy the ancestors, who might return either to help or to do harm. For the Japanese festival Obon, people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors. They also light lamps and play music because they think that will lead the ancestors back to earth. In Mexico, people celebrate the Day of the Dead in early November. On this important feast day, people eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes with “bones” on them. They offer food, flowers and gifts to the dead. The Western holiday Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and go to their neighbours’ homes to ask for sweets. If the neighbours do not give any sweets, the children might play a trick on them.
Festivals to Honour People
Festivals can also be held to honour famous people. The Dragon Boat Festival in China honours the famous ancient poet, Qu Yuan. In the USA, Columbus Day is in memory of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World. India has a national festival on October 2 to honour Mohandas Gandhi, the leader who helped gain India’s independence from Britain.
Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events. People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter and the agricultural work is over. In European countries, people will usually decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit, and will get together to have meals. Some people might win awards for their farm produce, like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster. China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals when people admire the moon and in China enjoy moon-cakes.
The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. At the Spring Festival in China, people eat dumplings, fish and meat and may give children lucky money in red paper. There are dragon dances and carnivals, and families celebrate the Lunar New Year together. Some Western countries have very exciting carnivals, which take place forty days before Easter, usually in February. These carnivals might include parades, dancing in the streets day and night, loud music and colourful clothing of al kinds. Easter is an important religious and social festival for Christians around the world. It celebrates the return of Jesus from the dead and the coming of spring and new life. Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festival happens a little later. The country, covered with cherry tree flowers, looks as though it is covered with pink snow.
People love to get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other. Festivals let us enjoy life, be proud of our customs and forget our work for a little while.
A SAD LOVE STORY
LI Fang was heart-broken. It was Valentine’s Day and Hu Jin had said she would meet him at the coffee shop after work. But she didn’t turn up. She could be with her friends right now laughing at him. She said she would be there at seven o’clock, and he thought she would keep her word. He had looked forward to meeting her all day, and now he was alone with his roses and chocolates, like a fool. Well, he was not going to hold his breath for her to apologize. He would drown his sadness in coffee.
It was obvious that the manager of the coffee shop was waiting for Li Fang to leave - he wiped the tables, then sat down and turned on the TV - just what Li Fang needed! A sad Chinese story about lost love.
The granddaughter of the Goddess of Heaven visited the earth. Her name was Zhinü, the weaving girl. While she was on earth she met the herd boy Niulang and they fell in love. (“Just like me and Hu Jin,” thought Li Fang.) They got married secretly, and they were very happy. (“We could be like that,” thought Li Fang.) When the Goddess of Heaven knew that her granddaughter was married to a human, she became very angry and made the weaving girl return to Heaven. Niu Lang tried to follow her, but the river of stars, the Milky Way, stopped him. Finding that Zhinü was heart-broken, her grandmother finally decided to let the couple cross the Milky Way to meet once a year. Magpies make a bridge of their wings so the couple can cross the river to meet on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. People in China hope that the weather will be fine on that day, because if it is raining, it means that Zhinü is weeping and the couple won’t be able to meet. The announcer said, “This is the story of Qiqiao Festival. When foreigners hear about the story, they call it a Chinese Valentine’s story. It’s a fine day today, so I hope you can call all meet the one you love.”
As Li Fang set off for home, he thought, “I guess Hu Jin doesn’t love me. I’ll just throw these flowers and chocolates away. I don’t want them to remind me of her.” So he did.
As he sadly passed the tea shop on the corner on his way home, he heard a voice calling him. There was Hu Jin waving at him and calling, “Why are you so late? I’ve been waiting for you for a long time! And I have a gift for you!”
What would he do? He had thrown away her Valentine gifts! She would never forgive him. This would not be a happy Valentine’s Day! Unit 2 Healthy eating
COME AND EAT HERE (I)
Wang Peng sat in his empty restaurant feeling very frustrated. It had been a very strange morning. Usually he got up early and prepared his menu of barbecued mutton kebabs, roast pork, stir-fried vegetables and fried rice. Then by lunchtime they would all be sold. By now his restaurant ought to be full of people. But not today! Why was that? What could have happened? He thought of his mutton, beef and bacon cooked in the hottest, finest oil. His cola was sugary and cold, and his ice cream was made of milk, cream and delicious fruit. “Nothing could be better,” he thought. Suddenly he saw his friend Li Chang hurrying by. “Hello, Lao Li,” he called. “Your usual?” But Li Chang seemed not to hear. What was the matter? Something terrible must have happened if Li Chang was not coming to eat in his restaurant as he always did.
Wang Peng followed Li Chang into a new small restaurant. He saw a sign at the door. Tired of all that fat? Want to lose weight?
Come inside Yong Hui’s slimming restaurant.
Only slimming foods served here.
Make yourself thin again!
Curiosity drove Wang Peng inside. It was full of people. The hostess, a very thin lady, came forward. “Welcome,” she said. “My name is Yong Hui. I’ll help you lose weight and be fit in two weeks if you eat here every day.” Then she gave a menu to Wang Peng. There were few choices of food and drink on it: just rice, raw vegetables served in vinegar, fruit and water. Wang Peng was amazed at this and especially at the prices. It cost more than a good meal in his restaurant! He could not believe his eyes. He threw down the menu and hurried outside. On his way home he thought about his own menu. Did it make people fat? Perhaps he should go to the library and find out. He could not have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies! He had better do some research!
At the library Wang Peng was surprised to find that his restaurant served far too much fat and Yong Hui’s far too little. Even though her customers might get thin after eating Yong Hui’s food, they were not eating enough energy-giving food to keep them fit. They would become tired very quickly. Wang Peng felt more hopeful as he drove back home. Perhaps with a discount and a new sign he could win his customers back. So he wrote:
Want to feel fit and energetic?
Come and eat here! Discounts today!
Our food gives you energy all day!
The competition between the two restaurants was on!
COME AND EAT HERE (II)
A week later, Wang Peng’s restaurant was nearly full and he felt happier. Perhaps he would be able to earn his living after all and not have to close his restaurant. He did not look forward to being in debt because his restaurant was no longer popular. He smiled as he welcomed some customers warmly at the door but the smile left his face when he saw Yong Hui walking in. She did not look happy but glared at him. “May I ask what you were doing in my restaurant the other day? I thought you were a new customer and now I know that you only came to spy on me and my menu,” she shouted. “Please excuse me,” he calmly explained, “I wanted to know where all my customers had gone last week. I followed one of them and found them in your restaurant. I don’t want to upset you, but I found your menu so limited that I stopped worrying and started advertising the benefits of my food. Why don’t you sit down and try a meal?”
Yong Hui agreed to stay and soon they were both enjoying dumplings and breast of chicken cooked with garlic. When they were served the ice cream, Yong Hui began to look ill. “I feel sick with all this fat and heavy food,” she said, “I miss my vegetables and fruit.” Wang Peng was enjoying a second plate of dumplings so he sighed. “Yes,” he added, “and I would miss my dumplings and fatty pork. Don’t you get tired quickly?” “Well, I do have to rest a lot,” admitted Yong Hui. “But don’t you think it would be better if you were a bit thinner? I’m sure you’d feel much healthier.”
They began to talk about menus and balanced diets. “According to my research, neither your restaurant nor mine offers a balanced diet,” explained Wang Peng. “I don’t offer enough fibre and you don’t offer enough body-building and energy-giving food. Perhaps we ought to combine our ideas and provide a balanced menu with food full of energy and fibre.” So that is what they did. They served raw vegetables with the hamburgers and boiled the potatoes rather than fried them. They served fresh fruit with the ice cream. In this way they cut down the fat and increased the
fibre in the meal. Their balanced diets became such a success that before long Wang Peng became slimmer and Yong Hui put on more weight. After some time the two found that their business cooperation had turned into a personal one. Finally they got married and live happily ever after.
Unit 3 The Million Pound Bank Note
THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE
Act I, Scene 3
NARRATOR: It is the summer of 1903. Two old and wealthy brothers, Roderick and Oliver, have made a bet. Oliver believes that with a million pound bank note a man could survive a month in London. His brother Roderick doubts it. At this moment, they see a penniless young man wandering on the pavement outside their house. It is Henry Adams, an American businessman, who is lost in London and does not know what he should do.
RODERICK: Young man, would you step inside a moment, please?
HENRY: Who? Me, sir?
RODERICK: Yes, you.
OLIVER: Through the front door on your left.
HENRY: (a servant opens a door) Thanks.
SERVANT: Good morning, sir. Would you please come in? Permit me to lead the way, sir. OLIVER: (Henry enters) Thank you, James. That will be all.
RODERICK: How do you do, Mr … er …?
HENRY: Adams. Henry Adams.高中必修三英语课文
OLIVER: Come and sit down, Mr Adams.
HENRY: Thank you.
RODERICK: Your are an American?
HENRY: That’s right, from San Francisco.
RODERICK: How well do you know London?
HENRY: Not at all. It’s my first trip here.
RODERICK: I wonder, Mr Adams, if you mind us asking a few questions?
HENRY: Not at all. Go right ahead.
RODERICK: May we ask what you’re doing in this country and what your plans are?
HENRY: Well, I can’t say that I have any plans. I’m hoping to find work. As a matter of fact,
I landed in Britain by accident.
RODERICK: How is that possible?
HENRY: Well, you see, back home I have my own boat. About a month ago, I was sailing
out of the bay … (his eyes stare at what is left of the brothers’ dinner on the table)
OLIVER: Well, go on.
HENRY: Oh, yes. Well, towards nightfall I found myself carried out to sea by a strong wind.
It was all my fault. I didn’t know whether I could survive until morning. The next
morning I’d just about given myself up for lost when I was spotted by a ship.
OLIVER: And it was the ship that brought you to England.
HENRY: Yes. The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand, which
accounts for my appearance. I went to the American embassy to seek help, but …
(the brothers smile at each other)
RODERICK: Well, you mustn’t worry about that. It’s an advantage.
HENRY: I’m afraid I don’t quite follow you, sir.
RODERICK: Tell us, Mr Adams, what sort of work did you do in America?
HENRY: I worked for a mining company. Could you offer me some kind of work here? RODERICK: Patience, Mr Adams. If you don’t mind, may I ask how much money you have? HENRY: Well, to be honest, I have none.
RODERICK: (happily) What luck! Brother, what luck! (claps his hands together)
HENRY: Well, it may seem lucky to you but not to me! On the contrary, in fact. If this is
your idea of some kind of joke, I don’t think it’s very funny. (Henry stands up to
leave) Now if you’ll excuse me, I think I’ll be on my way.
RODERICK: Please don’t go Mr Adams. You mustn’t think we don’t care about you. Oliver, give
him the letter.
OLIVER: Yes, the letter. (gets it from a desk and gives it to Henry like a gift) The letter. HENRY: (taking it carefully) For me?
RODERICK: For you. (Henry starts to open it) Oh, no, you mustn’t open it. Not yet. You can’t
open it until two o’clock.
HENRY: Oh, this is silly.
RODERICK: Not silly. There’s money in it. (calls to the servant) James?
HENRY: Oh, no. I don’t want your charity. I just want an honest job.
RODERICK: We know you’re hard-working. That’s why we have given you the letter. James,
show Mr Adams out.
OLIVER: Good luck, Mr Adams.
HENRY: Well, why don’t you explain what this is all about?
RODERICK: You’ll soon know. (looks at the clock) In exactly an hour and a half.
SERVANT: This way, sir.
RODERICK: Mr Adams, not until 2 o’clock. Promise?
HENRY: Promise. goodbye.
Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
HOW LIFE BEGAN ON THE EARTH
No one knows exactly how the earth began, as it happened so long ago. However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a “Big Bang” that threw matter in all directions. After that, atoms began to form and combine to create stars and other bodies.
For several billion years after the “Big Bang”, the earth was still just a cloud of dust. What it was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. It exploded loudly with fire and rock. They were in time to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth’s atmosphere. What is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface.
1.必修三Unit1 Festivals and celebrations节日和庆典
Festivals and celebrations of all kinds have been held everywhere since ancient times. 自古以来，世界各地就有各种各样的节日和庆典。Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn. 最古老的节日总是庆祝严寒的结束、春季的种植和秋天的收割。 Sometimes celebrate would be held after hunters had caught animals. 有时，在猎人捕获猎物后，也举行庆祝活动。 At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find, especially during the cold winter months. 在那个时代，如果食物难以找到，特别是在寒冷的冬月，人们会挨饿。 Today’s festivals have many origins ,some religious, some seasonal, and some for special people or events. 现在的节日有很多由来，一些是宗教上的，一些是季节性的，一些是纪念特殊的人和事件的。
Festivals of the Dead亡灵节
Some festivals are held to honour the dead or to satisfy the ancestors, who might return either to help or to do harm. 有些节日，是为了纪念死者，或使祖先得到满足，因为祖先们有可能回到世上（给人们）提供帮助，也有可能带来危害。For the Japanese festival. Obon, people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors. 在日本的盂兰盆节，人们要扫墓、烧香，以缅怀祖先。 They also light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to earth. 他们还点起灯笼，奏响乐曲，因为他们认为这样做可以把祖先引回到世上。 In Mexico, people celebrate the Day of the Dead in early November. 在墨西哥，亡灵节是在11月初。 On this important feast day, people eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes with “bones” on them. 在这个重要的节日里，人们会吃制成颅骨形状的食物，和装点有“骨头”的蛋糕。They offer food, flowers and gifts to the dead. 他们向亡者祭献食物、鲜花和礼品。The Western holiday Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. 西方节日万圣节也源自人们古老的信念，认为亡者的灵魂会返回人间。 It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and to their neighbours’ homes to ask for sweets. 万圣节如今成了孩子们的节日，这天他们可以乔装打扮上到邻居家要糖吃。If the neighbours do not give any sweets, the children might play a trick on them. 如果邻居什么糖也不给，那么孩子们就可以捉弄他们了。
Festivals to Honour People纪念名人的节日
Festivals can also be held to honour famous people . 也有纪念名人的节日。The Dragon Boat Festival in China honours the famous ancient poet, Qu Yuan. 中国的端午节（龙舟节），是纪念著名古代诗人屈原的。 In the USA Columbus Day is in memory of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in New World. 美国的哥伦布日是纪念克里斯托弗·哥伦布发现“新大陆”的日子。 India has a national festival on October 2 to honour Mohandas Gandhi, the leader who helped gain India’s independence from Britain. 印度在10月2日有个全国性节日，纪念莫汉达斯·甘地，他是帮助印度脱离英国而独立的领袖。
Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events. 收获与感恩节是非常喜庆的节日。 People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter and the agricultural work is over. 越冬的粮食收集起来了，农活结束了，人们都心怀感激。 In European countries, people will usually decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit, and will get together to have meals. 在欧洲国家，人们通常用花果来装饰教堂和市政厅，在一起聚餐。 Some people might win awards for their farm produce, like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster. 有些人还可能因为他们的农产品（参加各种评选）而获奖，比如最大的西瓜或最帅的公鸡。 China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals, when people admire the moon and in China, enjoy
mooncakes.中国和日本都有中秋节，这时，人们会赏月。在中国，人们还品尝月饼。 Spring Festivals春天的节日
The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. 最富生气而又最重要的节日，就是告别冬天、迎来春天的日子。At the Spring Festival in China, people eat dumplings, fish and meat and may give children lucky money in red paper. 中国人过春节要吃饺子、鱼和肉，还要给孩子们送红纸包着的压岁钱。 There are dragon dances and carnivals, and families celebrate the Lunar New Year together. （他们）舞龙灯、狂欢，全家人聚在一起欢庆阴历年。 Some Western countries have very exciting carnivals, which take place forty days before Easter, usually in February. 在一些西方国家有激动人心的狂欢节，通常在二月，复活节前的四十天。 These carnivals might include parades, dancing in the streets day and night, loud music and colourful clothing of all kinds. 狂欢节期间，人们身着各种艳