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Advanced English Writing
May 28, 2014
Genetically Modified Foods
In order to slove the world’s starvation problem, GM foods are encouraged to grow in many ares. However, there has been no evidence that GM foods are safe for people. The Chinese government is in favor of the generalization of GM foods. Therefore, some politicians make highlight the safety of GM foods as their preliminary task. They claimed that China’s food supply is not abundant and many people in poor areas are suffering from starvation. Genetically Modified Food is produced by scientists with transgenic technology. Scientists usually would add one or more genes into the plants to change their genetic orders. Therefore, Genetically Modified Foods are kinds of genetically engineered plants which are generated in labs by changing their genetic makeup. Additionally, the plants were tested numerous times in order to meet scientific requirements, such as insect-resistant, vital-resistant and high output. It is reported that GMF’s are a “new stage” of agricultural development and we humans have already “gone through several phases.”1 As is mentioned above, we have be study and plant GM foods for a long time, there are a lot of countries in the world that plant It was reported that there are 14 countries around the world that planted more than 50,000 hectares genetically
modified plants by the year 200 including America, Argentina, Canada, Brazil and China. The authorities of China claimed that China will make efforts to “keep up” with the world's transgenic technology development while “maintaining rigorous standards” for GM foods and “keeping consumers well informed” about them. 2
As GM foods are widely planted, they are not far away from us because people can easily get products containing genetically modified plants. There are many kinds of GM food in our daily lives, including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, carrots, cowpeas, corn and paddies. As a result, people may eat GM foods unconsciously everyday. Soybean oil make from genetically modified soybean account for a large proportion of cooking oil that is available in supermarkets in the world because compared with domestic soybeans, GM crops have “higher oil and protein content.”3
Since GM foods are wildly planted, they are consumed by a lot of people all around the world. In the United States, commonly used GM corn and soybean varieties contain a bacterial gene that confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, marketed under the brand name Roundup.4 China, also, are consuming GM food. It is reported that China is one of the largest consumers of GM food and some “scientists” once suggested that the central government of China should “grow more GM food” rather than import GM food. 5
Although people have their doubts toward GM food and transgenic technology, the explorations of science and technology about transgenic cannot be stopped. In order to make progress, people should be innovative and brave enough to develop
science and technology. Furthermore, developing transgenic technology and planting genetically modified plants may have the potential to solve the global starvation problem. Also, there are many advantages of GMF against normal food. First of all, to plant GMF in large area can help to reduce starvation in some regions. In addition, by planting GMF, the yield of crops can be raised while the cost to rear them can be reduced. Furthermore, as GMF are more resist to pests and more tolerant to harsh environments than normal plants, growing GMF can “help to eliminate the application of chemical pesticides” and reduce the cost. 6 However, every coin has two sides, GMF is not an exception. Therefore, GMF has advantages as well. Firstly, the safety of GMF is still unsure so far. It is reported that a change to a single gene, might turn out to be a more “subversive action”, with “unexpected ripple effects”, including the production of new proteins that might be “toxins or allergens”.7
However, there is no long-term data on “how genetically modified foods affect human health” because there is “no research has been conducted on the health and safety for people” who eat genetically modified foods. 8 Besides, GMF may have be lack of nutrition. There no evidence that GMF are of high-nutrition and might be beneficial for human physiology.
As a result, there are a great number of people who are oppose having GM foods. As far as opponents concerned, GM plants has a negative impact on the environment. Scientists think that plants that are genetically modified in order to be resist to
herbicide tend to dramatically increase the herbicide use. Knowing that their plants are more herbicide tolerant, farmers are “more likely” to use these “often-toxic chemicals” more liberally.9 Also, the opponents think that GM foods may toxically affect several and systems. New research shows that when we eat we're “consuming” “more than” just “vitamins and protein”. Our bodies are “absorbing information, or micro RNA”. It means that we're eating vitamins, protein, and fuel, and gene regulators as well. As a result, GM foods might have the potential to chang RNA and affect human-beings’ organs and systems permanently.10转基因食品英语论文
However, it is obvious that the dangerousness of GMF didn’t capture Chinese’s attention so far. Some people suggested that Chian should have the similar set of labeling regulations as Europe. Nowadays,the safety of GM food is a “big public concern”.11 However, this method may be impractical in China because it requires enterprises to be “truly honest” and regulators to be “highly competent and
responsible”. Still, China should make more efforts in order to achieve a strict regulation of genetically modified food.12
With the development of transgenic technology and the widely planting of GM plants, GM foods are available for a lot of people all around the world. However, whether GM foods are safe or not is not for sure so far, so people should be careful when they consume GM foods. Also, governments should take the responsibility of setting up a set of regulations on controlling GM foods.
Civilization and Crop Development, Zhang, Lei, 23-10-2013
Nation Vows to Keep Up With Transgenics, Zhao, Huanxin, 23-01-2014转基因食品英语论文
(3).cn/food/2013-06/14/content_16619453.htm, China Gives Approval to GM Soybeans, Jin, Zhu 14-06-2013
(4)/opinion/viewpoints/Dont-Fear-GMOS-Genetically-Modified-Food-is-Just-the-Latest-Chapter-in-10000-Years-of-High-tech-Agriculture-20140406, Don’t fear GMOs: Genetically Modified Food is Just the Latest Chapter in 10,000 Years of High-Tech Agriculture, Mark R. O’Brian, 06-04-2014
Scientists Requested Central Government to Plant GM Crops, Wang, Qingyun, 21-10-2013
Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?, Whitman, B. Deborah, 04-2000
(7)/article/the-truth-about-genetically-modified-food/?page=4, The Truth about Genetically Modified Food, Freedman, H. David, 20-08-2013
(8)/article/345554-Disadvantages-of-Genetically-Modified-Food/, Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food, Kannall,Erica , 04-02-2014
(9)/029869_GMOs_dangers.html, The Dangers of Genetically
Genetically Modified food
With the science and technology expanding day by day,we can get and experience more and more things which have never existed
before,such as plane,car and genetically modified food.The planes and cars can let us be more convenient in our daily life.However,so far we still do not clearly know all the aspects of genetically modified food.Do they damage to our healthy?
So what is the genetically modified food?It is a kind of food that people apply modern molecular biotechnology,transfer some biological gene to other species, transform the genetic material of living
things,change the shape, nutritional quality, consumer quality to the target of people's needs.So from the definition of GMF,we can
know it happened for people's needs.We can have more options to cook and eat,and it also can save our money because this kind of food is usually cheaper and easier to plant than others.Originally, it is good for our life.
While,almost 50 percent of the whole people in China believe that the genetically modified food is not safe to our healthy,but what is the fun thing is most of them don't know how the genetically modified food damage their healthy.They just are deeply misunderstanding and even have repellent psychology because of the long-time negative public opinion.
Of course,in our country,the new grain law have same more rigorous rules.For example,the genetically modified seeds' scientific research,experiments,productions,sales,imports and exports should be followed to the country's laws,and every individual person and unit are not allowed to imply genetically modified technology at principle grain cultivars without authorization.
So in my opinion,we should believe that the genetically modified technology can bring more advantage and less disadvantage to us.It becomes a tendency to eat genetically modified food.So we just be at ease to eat unless the productions are counterfeit and inferior and it is not qualified by the standard department.
With the development of world population and economy ,and peoples pursuance to the quality and quantity of food ,all of which result in the advanced biotechnology applied in food development broadly,especially the transgenic technology applied in increasing food output and category.The transgenic technology not only solves the problem of food and clothing all over the world,but also enriches our food varieties.However,the transgenic technology is not easy to apply in food,which brings both pluses and minus .Meanwhile ,some hidden dangers exist in this technology .Therefore,it is an important issue for us to apply the transgenic technology appropriately in food production and benefiting mankind. Every coin has its two sides, the advantage of genetically modified food is can bring convenience to our life, improve the level of our life. Toxicity and problems at present a lot of people to genetically modified foods, allergic reactions, nutritional problems, resistance to antibiotics, as well as such problems as environmental threats are questioning attitude,. In fact, to be fair, every new thing, have it than by a growth process. We should use objective criticism and inclusive vision to think of genetically modified foods have more advantages: can increase crop yield per unit area; Can reduce the production cost; So as to bring greater investment returns ratio; Through transgenic technology to improve crop yield, insect-resistant effect, only the first step in the development of transgenic technology, is also relatively easy to do. Scientists are now considering how to better use of soil to crops through transgenic technology of fertilizer, improve crops drought-resistant ability, make crops better use of water resources. Through transgenic technology can enhance the ability of crop pests, anti-virus, etc; To improve the water resistance of agricultural products, extend the freshness, meet the needs of people's living standard is increasing day by day; Can make the crop development time is greatly shortened; Can get rid of the season, the influence of the climate, the four seasons low-cost supply; Can continue cultivating new species, produce beneficial to human health food.
For now, however, genetically modified food, disadvantages as well. Some researchers believe that for artificial refining and added genes, can be achieved in some people want to achieve the effect of at the same time, also increase and accumulate the original traces of poison in the food; For a food allergy sometimes food allergic to a previously they do not produce allergic; Foreign genes could damage the nutrients in the food; Genetically modified species may also ecological environment destruction and pollution; Genetically modified foods may also cause new diseases. As for genetically modified food can't eat, of course, is currently one of the most controversial issues. In fact, can't eat, is to rely on time to test. Currently we should to do is stand in the professional point of view to analyze the pros and cons. To make the final judgment is the result of trade-offs. Genetically modified food is obvious can bring huge economic benefits to human beings, and can relieve the earth more and more of the most basic human dinner now. However, the same Because too much uncertainty also let people stay at a respectful distance from sb to it. Now, with the rapid development of the research and development and commercialization of gm engineering, potential danger to the safety of genetically modified (gm) food public doubts, in essence, genetically modified organisms and a variety of conventional breeding is the same, both are on the basis of the original by modifying certain traits, or add new traits, or eliminate the original negative traits. Conventional varieties bred only within or between relatives, and foreign genes in
transgenic plants can come from plants, animals and microbes. Although, current scientific level also can't accurately predict a foreign gene in the new genetic background will produce what kind of interaction, but in theory, genetically modified foods are safe. In addition, genetically modified foods listed many departments is through a lot of testing and strict inspection before; Because of the genetically modified food not accumulate in the body. As for wondering whether the genetically modified food may cause danger to the human body mainly is that they do not understand gm foods, and these "harm" there is no scientific basis. I believe in the near future of genetically modified food will make our life shine brilliantly.
Genetically modified food safety issues
As we all know,modern biotechnology has brought human numerous benefits:Through the application of biotechnology, a broad and significant increase of food production can be happily seen at global agricultural production. But when we enjoy the enormous benefits of the GM food,a new but alarming problem also came that if these food is safe enough for people?if something seriously happened,what can we do?Maybe you can find some answer in this thesis.
Key Words: modern biotechnology GM food safety
abstract in English .......................................................................................................... 1
chapter 1 intruduction. ................................................................................................... 3
chapter 2 Status of genetically modified foods .............................................................. 4
Chapter 3 GM food safety issues ................................................................................... 5
Chapter 4 Conclusion ................................................................................................... 10
Reference ..................................................................................................................... 10
Chapter 1 Introduction
What is biotechnology?Maybe not too mang people know its definition accurately.Biotechnology is a technology which can reform and make the use of the natural lives on the ingredient of them by taking advantage of the research finds in life sciences which can greatly follow the will of people.In its purest form,the term "biotechnology" refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment.
Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times. When the first human beings realized that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists. The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.
Chapter 2 Status of genetically modified food As we all know,modern biotechnology has brought human numerous benifits:Through the application of biotechnology, a broad and significant increase of food production can be happily seen at global agricultural production.Since 1983 when the first time human got transgenic tobacco, potato by using recombinant DNA technology,the plant genetic engineering technology in the world has achieved rapid development of transgenic plants for research and development,which has made a series of remarkable progress and has Successfully nurtured a number of crops with disease-resistance,insecticide resistance and even an incredible high-yield.with the help of them,we can feed another more than millions of people,According to statistics,up to now ,no less than 1.6 billion people have benefits from biotechnology.in the area,our mother country China has made tremendous contributions to the world's biotechnology.what must be mentioned is BT cotton and hybrid rice of Yuan Longping.
Commercialize genetically modified crops dates from the year of 1996,including Soybeans, cotton, cereals and oilseed rape.GM crops now occupy 10% of global arable land. In 2010,81% of worldwide soybean, 64% cotton, 29% and 23% of the grain is genetically modified oilseed rape.Totally,29 countries grow GM products all over the world.the top three country with the largest area of cultivation is United States, Brazil and Argentina.The problem About the safety of GM products has been controversial.Genetically modified food will bring human and animal allergens and toxins of unknown.
Chapter 3 GM food safety issues
International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.
At an early stage in the introduction of recombinant-DNA technology in modern plant breeding and biotechnological food production systems, efforts began to define internationally harmonized evaluation strategies for the safety of foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Two years after the first successful transformation experiment in plants (tobacco) in 1988, the International Food Biotechnology Council (IFBC) published the first report on the issue of safety in this report has laid the basis for later safety evaluation strategies. Other
The world's first commercial production of Genetically modified food (GMF) is delay the maturity of Genetically modified tomato,which was put into the United States market in 1994. There is no denying the fact that the number of GMF is steadily increasing in the 21st century. So,what is the so-called GMF?
GMF is a kind of food that is embedded foreign gene in the genome of the species by genetic engineering technology to meet human needs,including transgenic plant food,transgenic animal food and transgenic microorganism food. There has been a controversy that whether the GMF should be banned.
On one side are the GMF supporters,who suggestion GMF has been no sign of major health or environmental problems. This kind of food has many advantages:increase crop yields, reduce production costs,enhance the ability of anti-virus and so on. GMF is usually cheaper and easier to plant than traditional food,in this way,we can get more people to eat and live. On the other are the opponents,who believe that GMF is harmful to our health because it's potential threat,such as some species may be affected by the drift of genes,GMF may cause allergic reactions. So,we should not promote and eat GMF.
In my point of view,GMF is a double-edged sword. Mature GMF can benefit mankind and reduce hunger,but we should take a cautious attitude to the immature GMF.
Genetically Modified Food --An Inevitable Result Of Trend Abstract: Genetically Modified Food is under a heated discussion about its advantages and potential damage since being created. Despite the disagreements, Genetically Modified Food benefits us a lot in many aspects. In the following words, I will show the profit it does, analyze the inevitability and express my perspective about what the opponents afraid of.
Keywords: Genetically Modified Food, security problems, merits, disagreement转基因食品英语论文